Paharpur, also known as the Somapura Mahavihara, is an archaeological site located in the northwest of Bangladesh. It is one of the most important Buddhist monasteries in South Asia and holds great historic and cultural significance. In this article, we will explore the history and significance of Paharpur.


Paharpur was built during the reign of the Pala Dynasty, which ruled over the Bengal region from the 8th to the 12th century CE. It is believed to have been constructed during the reign of Dharmapala, a prominent ruler of the dynasty. The monastery complex was built over a period of several centuries, with the main structures being constructed between the 8th and 11th centuries CE.

The monastery was an important center of Buddhist learning and attracted scholars and students from across South Asia. It was also a hub of trade and commerce, with traders coming from as far as China and the Middle East to exchange goods.

Paharpur was abandoned in the 12th century CE, possibly due to a decline in the influence of Buddhism in the region. The site was rediscovered in the late 19th century and excavations began in the early 20th century. The site was declared a UNESCO World Heritage Site in 1985.


The Paharpur complex covers an area of approximately 27 acres and consists of a main temple, several stupas, and numerous other smaller temples and structures. The main temple is a large, square structure that measures approximately 170 feet on each side. It has a large central courtyard surrounded by smaller rooms and corridors.

The temple is surrounded by a large brick wall, which is believed to have been originally 20 feet high. The wall is adorned with terracotta plaques that depict scenes from Buddhist mythology, as well as everyday life in ancient Bengal.


Paharpur is an important site for several reasons. Firstly, it is one of the largest Buddhist monasteries in South Asia and was a center of Buddhist learning for centuries. The monastery attracted scholars and students from across the region, who came to study Buddhist philosophy, art, and literature.

Secondly, Paharpur was an important center of trade and commerce. The monastery was located at the crossroads of several important trade routes and was a hub for traders from across the region. The trade in goods such as silk, spices, and ceramics helped to make the region prosperous and contributed to the growth of the monastery.

Finally, Paharpur is an important archaeological site that provides insights into the history and culture of ancient Bengal. The site contains a wealth of information about the architecture, art, and everyday life of the people who lived in the region over a thousand years ago.

In conclusion, Paharpur is a site of great historic and cultural importance. It is a testament to the rich cultural heritage of Bangladesh and a reminder of the important role that Buddhism played in the region's history. As such, it is a site that should be preserved and celebrated for generations to come.

Photo Courtesy: Wikipedia